TUGKAD Volume 3


Cultural Transmission

When the Russian formalist Viktor Shklovsky coined the term ostranenie in his essay “Art as Technique,”1 it was to show a means to present common things in an unfamiliar way so that readers could gain new perspectives and see the world differently. This concept resonates with translation, when we render a familiar tongue into a different language for others to understand.

          We feel closest to a text when we read it in the original. When we read a text in translation, we are twice removed from the writer since the act of translation brings the translator’s special set of interpretations and references to a reading. What makes Tiburcio Baguio, a Cebuano writer in focus in this year’s issue, new for the English reader is the way his stories have been put together, rendered by different translators and shown the endless possibilities of articulation. Translation, after all, demonstrates that a word can have many possible meanings as we read them with context, tone, and rhythm. Although Baguio is still being rediscovered here by the current generation of readers in Cebuano and in English, for certain, we can say that his stories are not lost and gathering dust in the archive, rather, given new life as they are transformed for the contemporary milieu.

          No matter how translators feel about the practice they are engaged in, their actual exercise involves managing a multitude of choices. The translator chooses here and then gives up something to ensure a balance against a possible loss, and so on, in an infinite sequence of trade-offs and resolutions. Some of the parts the translator must be careful with are tone, rhythm, voice, her own biases; all are exemplified by the following choices. These wide-ranging classes are not given as part of a translator’s poetics but as a somewhat subjective way to mark the realities of working translators.

          Most of the selections here were published in the Bisaya magazine, a weekly publication that showcases not only news and events but also poetry and fiction and serialized novels as well. To make this selection more focused, I have decided to limit the translations to the Cebuano fiction of Tiburcio Baguio and Vicente Rama (writing as Trasmonte de la Fortuna). Thanks to the efforts of the translators, this volume hopes to illuminate the contributions of landmark Cebuano writers and the translator’s art to show a cross-section of not only Cebuano writing but their existence in translation.


Hope Sabanpan-Yu

1 Lawrence Crawford, “Viktor Shklovskij: Difference in Defamiliarization.” Comparative Literature 36:3 (1984). 209-219. 209.

Special Edition: Translation


Lamdaman Essay

Lamdaman Poetry


Ashley Robyn B. Alvarez is a Bachelor of Arts in Literary and Culture with Creative Writing student, studying at the University of San Carlos. She has been in the institution for two years, and her interests are reading, writing, and listening to music which fuels her creativity. She was an Editor-in-Chief for a school magazine way back in her Senior High School days and was also rewarded as Best in Research. She is also a member of PALABRA, a school organization that is organized by Literature students in the University of San Carlos, she was the secretary in her first year and the vice president and secretary in her second year.

Lea Gein Cabrera is an undergraduate student in the English Language Studies program at the University of San Carlos. As a language enthusiast, her passion lies in translation, and enjoys applying all its different theories in her translation works. She speaks a variety of languages and her hobbies include creating Japanese-to-English-song-translation content videos for her Youtube channel under the pseudonym “sakura”.

Jessiel V. Donaire is a current AB Literary and Cultural Studies student studying at the University of San Carlos. She served as the Auditor of Pulong sa mga Alagad sa Obra (PALABRA) in A.Y. 2022-2023 and is a consistent Dean’s Lister. She was chosen as one of the three Best Short Story Writers in her Creative Writing class in 2023.

Joel L. Econas is a Bachelor of Arts in Literary and Cultural Studies student at the University of San Carlos. He is currently the host and manager of Dear Tita Mercy, the radio program of the Cebuano Studies Center, and the Department of Communications, Linguistics, and Literature. His interests are poetry, Korean dramas, and Cebuano literature.

Jerrel Troi P. Flores is a third-year at the University of San Carlos. He is enrolled in the university’s Literary and Cultural Studies with Creative Writing course. He enrolled in the course with the goal of improving his writing skills.

Rhuther Jon Payales is an AB Literary and Cultural Studies third-year student studying at the University of San Carlos. He has been with the institution for over sixteen years, and his interests lie in both film and literature. After winning the Best Poet Award in his Literature class in 2019, he also won the Best Poem Award in another Creative Writing class in 2022.

Peter Junriel M. Milana is a sophomore AB Literary and Cultural Studies student at the University of San Carlos. He is currently writing letters for the DYRF radio program Dear Tita Mercy, and he aspires to write stories in the near future. This journal is his first translation project.

Gwyneth Mariz M. Mascariñas is a BA Literary and Cultural Studies with Creative Writing student at the University of San Carlos – Talamban Campus. She’s currently a sophomore entering her junior year this upcoming semester (2023-2024). Her love for writing stories and poems is what made her enroll in this program.

Trisha Marie Q. Rebayla is inspired by the beauty of what words can offer to the world. She is a BA in Literary and Cultural Studies with Creative Writing student studying at the University of San Carlos. She was the Editor-in-Chief (2020-2021) of Warrior's Ink, the official student publication of the University of San Carlos – North School. As of today, she has been noted as the first Executive Vice-President of Societatis Lingua Artes (SOLARES), the official co-curricular organization of the Department of Communications, Linguistics, and Literature at the University of San Carlos, and is also affiliated with Pulong sa mga Alagad sa Obra (PALABRA), the official literature organization at the University of San Carlos.

Nina Fatima C. Tundag is a Bachelor of Arts in Literary and Cultural Studies student at the University of San Carlos.

Ralph Semino Galán, poet, literary and cultural critic, translator and editor, is the assistant director of the UST Center for Creative Writing and Literary Studies. He is an associate professor in the UST Faculty of Arts and Letters. He is the author of the following books: The Southern Cross and Other Poems (2005), Discernments: Literary Essays, Cultural Critiques and Book Reviews (2013), From the Major Arcana (2014), and Sa mga Pagitan ng Buhay at Iba pang Pagtutulay (2018). His poems in English and Filipino won prizes in national literary contests. He is currently working on a research project titled Bili Ning Kinabuhi: Translating 100 Mindanao Poems from Binisaya/Cebuano into English (1961-1990). It is the second part of a projected 300-poem translation endeavor that he started with Labaw sa Bulawan: Translating 100 Mindanao Poems from Cebuano into English. He is also working on a new collection of poems in Cebuano, Mga Kalag nga Nahisalaag, Mga Dili Ingon Nato.

George Emmanuel R. Borrinaga, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in History at the Department of Anthropology, Sociology, and History at the University of San Carlos. He completed his Ph.D. in History at the University of Hull in the United Kingdom in 2019 with a dissertation titled “Solidarity and Crisis-Derived Identities in Samar and Leyte, Philippines, 1565 to Present.” 

Rodney C. Jubilado, Ph.D. is a tenured associate professor and the chair of the Department of Languages at the University of Hawaii. His research interest includes formal linguistics, migration, Southeast Asian studies, and heritage education, among others. His studies have been presented at major international conferences and his research articles have been widely published in peer-reviewed journals.

Bea M. Lastimosa has a Ph.D. English with a concentration in Literary Studies from Silliman University and is a recipient of the 2020 NCCA dissertation research award. She teaches undergraduate and graduate courses at the University of San Carlos and works as a part-time librarian and senior high faculty at the Philippine Christian Gospel School.

Federico V. Magdalena, Ph.D., is a Sociologist. He is Associate Specialist and the Deputy Director of the Center for Philippine Studies, University of Hawai’i at Mānoa. He directed a Fulbright-Hays project for American K-12 teachers, faculty, and students in Cebu to train on basic Cebuano language (July-August 2022) under the auspices of the University of San Carlos. 

Jona Branzuela Bering authored Alang sa Nasaag a poetry collection for earlier works in Cebuano. She won the Palanca Award for her Cebuano fiction and after four years of living and working as a teacher in Vietnam, she moved to Munich Germany with her two cats.

Jeneth B. Borlasa graduated from the University of the Philippines Cebu with a Bachelor’s degree in Mass Communication. She acquired her Master’s Degree from the University of San Carlos in Cebu City. She is currently a faculty member of the BA Communication program at UP Cebu. She has worked as a producer for some critically acclaimed Cebuano films like Ang Damgo Ni Ang Damgo ni Eleuteria, My Paranormal Romance, Confessional, and the documentary Eskrimadors.

Cecilia Manguerra Brainard is the writer and editor of over twenty (20) books. She is the youngest daughter of Mariano Flores Manguerra and Concepcion Cuenco Manguerra. She was born and raised in Cebu City, a place that inspired her mythical setting of Ubec in her writings. Her first novel, When the Rainbow Goddess Wept, draws from stories she heard of the guerrilla experiences of her parents during World War Two. Her third novel, The Newspaper Widow, was inspired by her great-grandmother who was the first Woman Publisher of Cebu. She has written another novel, Magdalena, and short stories collections: Selected Short Stories by Cecilia Manguerra Brainard, Vigan and Other Stories, Acapulco at Sunset and Other Stories, and Woman With Horns and Other Stories.

Januar Yap currently teaches at the University of the Philippines-Cebu College of Communication, Arts, and Design. He is also an opinion editor for SunStar Cebu, an English-language news organization based in Cebu. His work of fiction His works of fiction have appeared in various anthologies, such as ULIRAT: Best Contemporary Stories in Translation from the Philippines (Consciousness), Sugboanong Sugilanon (Cebuano Stories), Sa Atong Dila Introduction to Visayan Literature (In Our Tongue: Introduction to Visayan Literature), among others.