Upon submission of an article, the authors will receive an acknowledgment from the submissions manager. The submissions manager hands in the article to the associate editor and the editor-in-chief who will assess the article in terms of organization, clarity of expression, quality of writing, strength of argument and use of reference material.

If the article sufficiently satisfies these criteria, it will then be sent to at least two reviewers who are recognized experts in the subject area. The reviewers will read the article anonymously and will rate the quality of scholarship and the originality of the article.

Upon acceptance by the reviewers, the article will be edited by a copyeditor. Usually this will consist of corrections of minor grammatical issues, spelling and punctuation.

Authors should receive confirmation of the provisional acceptance or rejection of their article within six weeks of submission. Articles will remain anonymous until this decision is made. 

Publication of an article in TUGKAD will be at the discretion of the editors and is conditional upon:

*positive acceptance by the editors
*positive acceptance by the reviewers
*satisfactory completion of any revisions requested by either the editors or the reviewer

Revision and rejections

It is rare for the editors to accept an article on its first reading. Authors may be asked for revisions at different stages of the process, and both the editor and the reviewer may request changes.

The editors may reject an article outright and will endeavor to provide brief but specific and constructive feedback explaining the decision. If the editors can identify a particular area which could improve the article, they will provide detailed feedback and the author will be given the chance to resubmit.

Where the reviewer has asked for revisions, these comments will be forwarded to the author. Upon re-submission, it will be left to the editors’ discretion to determine (a) if the author has addressed the reviewer’s concerns, and/or (b) if the article should be sent back to the reviewer for a final check.

The TUGKAD Team reserves the right to reject any article, at any stage of the process, should requests for revisions be unsatisfactorily addressed.


Articles submitted to TUGKAD should only require minor copyediting. Articles will be returned to the author in the first instance if prose and expression are poor, or sentence structure is clumsy. To be reconsidered, substantial re-working is required, and articles will be rejected outright if significant improvements are not made.

Articles requiring heavier editing will normally be rejected, specifically if the author is unable to make substantial improvements. However, the editors reserve the right to make changes which will improve clarity and flow. Authors will be sent the edited version prior to publication, and will have the opportunity to approve any changes which the author feels improves the quality of the prose, or have substantially clarified meaning.

Consistency with style

Conform to the style guide. Check that footnotes are presented according to the Style Guide, and that all the necessary references are included.

Articles should be between 3000 to 7000 words including notes. Articles under 3000 words or over 7000 words will be returned to the author for revision.

Style Guide

This style sheet is based on the conventions of the MLA Referencing Style.

  1. Article Submission:
  • Please submit your article as an email attachment in MS Word format (.doc OR .docx) to

  • Authors should prepare and submit two documents
    1. A manuscript submission of 3500-7000 words (including footnotes). All information identifying the author should be removed from this document as it will be sent to the referees.
    2. A separate document that includes the following information:
      • Name
      • Institutional affiliation
      • Email address
      • Title of the article
      • Abstract (150 – 200 words)
      • Keywords (at least 5)
      • Statement certifying the article is not under consideration elsewhere
      • Optional: Acknowledgment declaring any grants held while doing the research, or people who gave permission for their work to be included in your research. (i.e. This research was carried out under the auspices of the National Commission    for Culture and the Arts.)

NOTE: This will appear as the first footnote of the final version.

  1. Document Layout, Formatting & Punctuation:
  • Single space; left-aligned
  • New paragraphs should be indented at the tab of 1.25cm
  • No line spaces between paragraphs
  • No indention for abstract
  • Only one space after full stops (between sentences)
  • Language should be set to English American
  • A4 format
  • Margins: 1 inch all around
  • Palatino Linotype font throughout the document
  • Font size should be pt. 11 for the main text, and pt. 9 for footnotes
  1. Referencing/Footnotes:
  • References should be supplied as footnotes, not endnotes nor in-text references.
  • Submissions to Tugkad must use MLA Style Guide
  • Insert footnotes at the end of sentences
  • When using specialized terms a general audience will not readily comprehend, give a brief definition and when necessary, a reference in a footnote.
  1. Quotations
  • Use double quotation marks for quotations (“); within a quotation use single quotation marks (‘).
  • Unless the entire sentence is a quotation, commas, periods, semi-colons, and colons fall outside closed quotation marks
  • Single-indent quotations (1.25cm both left and right, justified) longer than 30 words, leaving one    line space before and after the indented quotation.
  • Always preserve the spelling, grammar and punctuation of the original document.
  • If omitting material from a quotation, use an ellipsis “ . . .”
  1. Special Formatting and Punctuation
  • Italics should be used for
    o    Names of texts
    o    Phrases or sayings in foreign languages
    • bona fide
    • ‘She had, how you call it, je ne sais pas.’
    • The Latin adverb sic is used to indicate where the quoted text contains an error in its original that has been kept in the current transcription.
  • Single quotation marks should be used for the following:
    • titles of short poems
    • TV and radio programmes
    • titles of book chapters
    • articles in periodicals
    • to enclose an unfamiliar, discipline-specific or technical word, term or phrase
      • This should only be done for the first occurrence of the word, term or phrase
      • NOTE: if a word, term or phrase is discipline-specific, it needs to be defined in a footnote; this should only be done for the first occurrence of the word, term or phrase
  • Quotation marks are not used in the following instances:
    • around the names of sacred texts or their subdivisions
    • musical works identified by description
    • houses or public buildings
    • colloquial or slang words, terms or phrases
  • Dashes and Hyphens
    • When typing a hyphen, no space should be left at either side
    • Where a dash is intended, insert an em dash ‘—’ or two closed hyphens without spaces ‘–’ between words. Use either the em dash or two close hyphens consistently throughout the document.
      • Since 2007, the consensus of the economic establishment—bankers, policymakers, CEOs, stock analysts, pundits—has been catastrophically wrong.
  1. Numbers/Dates
  • In general, spell numbers up to nine and use numerals for numbers 10 and above.
  • Numbers over 1,000 should use a comma, with the exception of dates
  • Decimals should be indicated with a full stop, and use numerals.
  • Fractions, such as a ‘¼’/quarter, should be spelled in full.
  • Use the date form 1 January 2000: months and years should not be abbreviated at any time i.e. decades should always be given in full i.e. ‘1980s’, NOT ‘80s’.
  • No apostrophe should be used for dates e.g. 1970s
  • Show a span of years using a hyphen (see ‘Dashes and Hyphens’ above)
  • For centuries, spell out the number in full, i.e. the nineteenth century.
  1. Figures and Illustrations
  • As the author, you are required to secure permission for reproduction of images, including derivatives, unless your use of images falls under The Fair Use/Fair Dealing Handbook exception. Reproduction permission must be sought because the Philippines does not have a ‘Fair Use’ copyright exception.
  • Each figure should be referenced within the text using the format:
    • ‘(fig. 1)’ if not referred to directly
      • I shall be referring to the painting ‘Lab to the Bones’ by Josua Cabrera (fig. 1).
    • ‘Figure 1’ if referred to directly in text
      • As you can see in Figure 1, the painting features a dreamy landscape.
    • Sequence of figures should follow the order in which they are referred to in the text. 
  • Each figure should be captioned on a new line underneath where it is included in the text. Caption should be prefixed by the identifier ‘Figure’ and its number.
  • The source and/or copyright of the image should be referenced in the image caption.
  • Upon acceptance, you will be asked to provide high-resolution images (at least 300 dpi for images, and 600dpi for line drawings). Lower resolution images will cause pixilation in reproduction.
  1. Tables
  • Follow as per Figures and Illustrations, but using ‘Table’ as the referent.
  1. Foreign Languages/Special Characters
  • When quoting in another language, follow the advice in ‘Quotations’ above, but always include an English translation of the quotation as well. Reference where this translation is not your own, or adapted from an existing translation.
  • When referring to a phrase or term in a foreign language within a sentence in English, italicize (see examples above)
  • When using special characters in a font other than Palatino Linotype please include the font file with your submission, and proof of right to reproduce.
  • NOTE: as the author you are required to secure permission for the reproduction of a licensed font.

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